Complete testing is not possible

Practical limitations

  • Just increasing test coverage becomes soon very expensive and not very useful
  • Claims about “full” or “complete” testing are signs of ignorance
  • Impossible to achieve total confidence

Theoretical impossibility: we can just prove the presence of faults

  • We can never be sure about the requirements
  • No testing system can identify every correct program
  • We can never be certain that a testing system is correct


  • Are 500 faults found a lot?
  • If there are plenty, it is a sign of good testing or bad software

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